Chromosomal aberrations of malignant cells from pleural effusions of 31 cases of lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed. Pooled CGH results showed frequent amplifications on chromosome arms 1p (22.6%), 1q (35.5%), 2q (25.8%), 3q (38.7%), 4q (41.9%), 5p (41.9%), 5q (51.6%), 6p (19.4%), 6q (25.8%), 7p (41.9%), 7q (35.5%), 8q (32.3%), 12q (38.7%), 13q (22.6%), 14q (35.5%), 17q (19.4%), Xp (22.6%), and Xq (38.7%). Frequent deletions were found on 1p (19.4%), 3p (16.1%), 4q (16.1%), 8p (25.8%), 9p (22.6%), 9q (29.0%), 10q (22.6%), 13q (22.6%), 16p (19.4%), 16q (22.6%), 17p (29.0%), 18q (16.1%), 19p (41.9%), 19q (32.3%), 20p (19.4%) and 22q (29%). These genomic changes were generally found consistent with previous reports of CGH analysis of primary tumors of lung adenocarcinoma. Loss of 19q and 22q were more frequently found in our studies (32.3% and 29.0%, respectively) than studies of primary tumors (less than 7% for both genetic changes). Gain of 11p, although not a frequent finding, was relatively more common in this (16%) than other studies (range, 2.9-11.8%). Interestingly, occurrences of 3p loss and 11p gain were higher in smokers than non-smokers, and deletion of 3p and increased copy number of 11p and Xp appeared more often in male than female patients. Among 17 male patients, gain of chromosomal 11p was a frequent aberration in tumors of smokers, while gain of Xp was more easily found in tumors of non-smokers. One candidate gene located within 11p15, lactate dehydrogenase C (LDHC), was selected for further study. Three cases with 11p gain had amplified FISH signals of LDHC. Also tumors from smokers or male had significantly higher transcript level of LDHC than non-smokers or female, respectively. The results demonstrate that different cytogenetic changes of malignant pleural effusions from lung adenocarcinoma are correlated with genders and smoking habits. The role of LDHC in the carcinogenesis of smoking-related lung adenocarcinoma, especially in male patients with pleural effusions, deserves further investigations.
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