Human platelet lysates (HPLs) made from clinical-grade platelet concentrates are currently evaluated in the preclinical models of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury, and others, as a new polyvalent neuroprotective biotherapy of the central nervous system. However, the presence and content of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in HPLs and their potential contribution to the neuroprotective and neurorestorative activities of HPLs are still unknown. We, therefore, characterized the EVs present in four different HPL preparations and after purification by size-exclusion chromatography. We then tested the effect of the isolated EVs on neuronal cell repair. We identified that all four HPLs contained a high and similar amount of EVs (1011 to 1012/mL) with a mean size ranging from ca. 50 to 300 nm and a negative zeta potential as determined by nanoparticle tracking analysis and dynamic light scattering. Western blot analysis revealed that the EVs present in HPLs expressed the clusters of differentiation 41 (CD41) and 61 (CD61) characteristic of platelets. These EVs were efficiently isolated from HPL proteins by Sepharose CL-2B size-exclusion column chromatography as confirmed by total protein determination and protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, with 73-85% recovery and maintenance of their size, negative zeta potential, and CD41 and CD61 expression. Interestingly, the EVs purified from the four HPLs exhibited a differential capacity to promote cell growth and migration in a wound-healing assay using SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, and one EV preparation stimulated network formation in primary neuronal cultures. These data indicated that the EVs present in HPLs have different neuroregenerative capacities and that some EV preparations may have interesting applications as a stand-alone therapy for usage in neuroregenerative medicine.
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