Background: Actinomyces odontolyticus is not commonly recognized as a causative microbe of liver abscess. The detection and identification of A. odontolyticus in laboratories and its recognition as a pathogen in clinical settings can be challenging. However, in the past decades, knowledge on the clinical relevance of A. odontolyticus is gradually increasing. A. odontolyticus is the dominant oropharyngeal flora observed during infancy [Li et al. in Biomed Res Int 2018:3820215, 2018]. Herein we report a case of severe infection caused by A. odontolyticus in an immunocompromised patient with disruption of the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa. Case presentation: We present a unique case of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection who was admitted due to liver abscess and was subsequently diagnosed as having coinfection of A. odontolyticus, Streptococcus constellatus, and Candida albicans during the hospital course. The empirical antibiotics metronidazole and ceftriaxone were replaced with the intravenous administration of fluconazole and ampicillin. However, the patient’s condition deteriorated, and he died 3 weeks later. Conclusion: This report is one of the first to highlight GI tract perforation and its clinical relevance with A. odontolyticus infection. A. odontolyticus infection should be diagnosed early in high-risk patients, and increased attention should be paid to commensal flora infection in immunocompromised individuals.
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