To investigate the nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci by children, anterior nasal swabs were done for 4963 children <5 years old in 11 countries in Asia and the Middle East. In total, 1105 pneumococci isolates (carriage rate, 22.3%) were collected, 35.8% of which were found to be nonsusceptible to penicillin. Prevalence of penicillin nonsusceptibility was highest in Taiwan (91.3%), followed by Korea (85.8%), Sri Lanka (76.5%), and Vietnam (70.4%). Penicillin resistance was related to residence in urban areas, enrollment in day care, and a history of otitis media. The most common serogroups were 6 (21.5%), 23 (16.5%), and 19 (15.7%). The most common clone, as assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, was identical to the Spanish 23F clone and to strains of invasive isolates from adult patients. Data in this study documented the high rate of penicillin or multidrug resistance among isolates of pneumococci carried nasally in children in Asia and the Middle East and showed that this is due to the spread of a few predominant clones in the region.