Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection in the lung is common in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is known to play a key role in lung inflammation. Acute inflammation and its timely resolution are important to ensure bacterial clearance and limit tissue damage. Carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in various tissues and organ systems. Here, we explored the protective effects and mechanisms of carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) on P. aeruginosa-induced inflammatory responses in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs). We showed that P. aeruginosa induced prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 )/interleukin-6 (IL-6)/ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adherence to HPAEpiCs. Moreover, P. aeruginosa-induced inflammatory responses were inhibited by transfection with siRNA of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), PKCα p47 phox , JNK2, p42, p50, or p65. P. aeruginosa also induced PKCα JNK, ERK1/2, and NF-κB activation. We further demonstrated that P. aeruginosa increased intracellular ROS generation via NADPH oxidase activation. On the other hand, P. aeruginosa-induced inflammation was inhibited by pretreatment with CORM-2. Preincubation with CORM-2 had no effects on TLR4 mRNA levels in response to P. aeruginosa. However, CORM-2 inhibits P. aeruginosa-induced inflammation by decreasing intracellular ROS generation. P. aeruginosa-induced PKCα JNK, ERK1/2, and NF-κB activation was inhibited by CORM-2. Finally, we showed that P. aeruginosa induced levels of the biomarkers of inflammation in respiratory diseases, which were inhibited by pretreatment with CORM-2. Taken together, these data suggest that CORM-2 inhibits P. aeruginosa-induced PGE 2 /IL-6/ICAM-1 expression and lung inflammatory responses by reducing the ROS generation and the inflammatory pathways.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry