We have experience and are conscious of the world. Who, though, is conscious? This is the subject, or self, of experience. While in the past the concept of self has been a matter of philosophical discussion, psychoanalysis shifted it into the domain of psycholog y where it surfaced as ego. More recently, brain imaging allows researchers to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying our subjective experience of a self. This chapter focuses on discussing the different concepts of self as based on philosophical accounts. These are then complemented by neuroscientific data on the self and self-reference. Finally, both philosophical and neuroscientific accounts are directly compared to each other while at the same time their relevance for psychoanalysis of self and ego are pointed out.