There is unmet need to design an analgesic with fewer side effects for severe pain management. Although traditional opioids are the most effective painkillers, they are accompanied by severe adverse responses, such as respiratory depression, constipation symptoms, tolerance, withdrawal, and addiction. We indicated BPR1M97 as a dual mu opioid receptor (MOP)/nociceptin-orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor full agonist and investigated the pharmacology of BPR1M97 in multiple animal models. In vitro studies on BPR1M97 were assessed using cyclic-adenosine monophosphate production, β-arrestin, internalization, and membrane potential assays. In vivo studies were characterized using the tail-flick, tail-clip, lung functional, heart functional, acetone drop, von Frey hair, charcoal meal, glass bead, locomotor activity, conditioned place preference (CPP) and naloxone precipitation tests. BPR1M97 elicited full agonist properties for all cell-based assays tested in MOP-expressing cells. However, it acted as a G protein-biased agonist for NOP. BPR1M97 initiated faster antinociceptive effects at 10 min after subcutaneous injection and elicited better analgesia in cancer-induced pain than morphine. Unlike morphine, BPR1M97 caused less respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. In addition, BPR1M97 decreased global activity and induced less withdrawal jumping precipitated by naloxone. Thus, BPR1M97 could serve as a novel small molecule dual receptor agonist for antinociception with fewer side effects than morphine.
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