The biocharacteristics of xenogeneic grafts make them a possible substitute for autogenous bone grafts in dental bone graft procedures. This study aimed to develop a novel porcine graft with collagen capable of generating new bone in bone defects via osteoconduction over 8 weeks of healing and to compare it with a porcine graft. The porcine collagen graft was made to undergo a cell viability test (MTT) and alkaline phosphatase assay (ALP). The surgical procedure was performed in 20 male adult New Zealand white rabbits. Four calvarial critical-size defects of 6 mm in diameter were prepared in each rabbit. The upper left defect was filled with a porcine graft of 500-1000 μm, the upper right with a porcine collagen graft, the lower left with hydroxyapatite/beta-tricalcium phosphate and the lower right served as the control without any filling material. The rabbits were divided and sacrificed at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after surgery. Histological and micro-CT scan results showed that the performance of the porcine collagen graft is superior for regenerating new bone. Porcine collagen graft showed cell viability and osteoblast-like cell differentiation in vitro. The results indicate that porcine collagen graft is a potential bone substitute for clinical application.
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