The objective of this study was to perform a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to understand the BMI differences between different genders working fixed day shifts and rotating shifts. The Pubmed, Medline, and Embase databases were searched using set keywords, thereby producing 42 studies. Study quality was assessed using appraisal criteria from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI), and meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software (CMA) version 3. The indices were the means and standard deviations of BMI values from different genders working fixed day shifts and rotating shifts. The participants of the studies included a total of 43,193 individuals working rotating shifts and 185,875 individuals working fixed day shifts. The pooling effect size (SMD, standardized mean difference) presented was 0.19. The 95% confidence interval ranged from 0.10 to 0.281. The meta-regression analysis results showed that women had higher BMI values than men, the difference was statistically significant (p <.001). The heterogeneity test indicated statistically significant differences (p <.05), and the percentage of heterogeneity (I square) was 97.91%, which indicates that a high degree of heterogeneity exists among studies. A subgroup analysis by gender was conducted. For women, the pooling effect size was 0.25, and the 95% confidence interval ranged from 0.20 to 0.30. For men, the pooling effect size was 0.19, and the 95% confidence interval ranged from 0.05 to 0.33. This meta-analysis found that both women and men working rotating shifts have significantly higher BMI values than those working fixed day shifts. Finally, we divided the data into a cross-sectional group and a cohort group based on study design, and a meta-regression analysis conducted after controlling for age and nature of work variables revealed that in the cohort study, women presented higher BMI values than men, and the difference was statistically significant (p =.010). Thus, in terms of long-term effects, these results indicate that working rotating shifts exerts a greater impact on the BMI of women.
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