Aim: Recent research demonstrated that bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is associated with many coexisting physical and psychiatric conditions. In this study, we explored the potential association between anxiety disorder (AD) and BPS/IC using a case-controlled population-based approach in Taiwan. Methods: Data on the sampled subjects analyzed in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Our study included 396 female cases with BPS/IC and 1,980 randomly selected female controls. We excluded subjects who had a history of major psychosis (except AD) or a substance-related disorder. A conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for the association between a previous diagnosis of AD and IC/BPS. Results: Of the 2,376 sampled subjects, 136 (5.72%) had received an AD diagnosis. AD was found in 64 (16.16%) cases and in 72 (3.64%) controls (P <0.001). The conditional logistic regression analysis (conditioned on age group and the index year) suggested that compared to controls, the OR for prior AD among cases was 4.59 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.32-9.08, P <0.001). After adjusting for chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, asthma, and an overactive bladder, the OR for prior AD among cases was 4.37 (95% CI = 2.16-8.85, P <0.001) compared to the controls. Conclusions: There was an association between AD and BPS/IC, even after taking demographic characteristics, medical co-morbidities, and substance-related disorders into consideration. Results: of this study should alert clinicians to evaluate and monitor the presence of BPS/IC in patients with AD. Neurourol. Urodynam. 33:101-105, 2014.
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