The incidence of postoperative central nervous system infection (PCNSI) is higher than 5%-7%. Successful management of PCNSI requires a combined therapy of surgical debridement and long-term antibiotic treatment. In this study, Duraform soaked in a prepared bacterial solution was placed on the brain surface of rats to induce PCNSI. Virgin poly[(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide] (PLGA) nanofibrous membranes (vehicle-control group) and vancomycin-eluting PLGA membranes (vancomycin-nanofibres group) were implanted. The wound conditions were observed and serial brain MRI and pathology examinations were performed regularly. PCNSI was consistently induced in a single, simple step. In the vehicle-control group, most rats died within 1 week, and the survival rate was low (odds ratio = 0.0357, 95% confidence interval = 0.0057-0.2254). The wounds and affected cerebral tissues necrosed with purulence and increased in mass from the resulting PCNSI volumes. Initially, the mean PCNSI volumes showed no significant difference between the two groups. The PCNSI volume in the rats in the vancomycin-nanofibres group significantly decreased (P <0.01), and the wound appearance was excellent. Pathologic examinations revealed that the necrosis and leukocyte infiltration area decreased considerably. The experimental results suggest that vancomycin-eluting PLGA nanofibres are favourable candidates for treating PCNSI after surgical debridement.
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