Background: Many groups of fungi live as an endophyte in plants. Both published and undiscovered bioactive compounds can be found in endophytic fungi. Various biological activities of bioactive compounds from endophytic fungi had been reported, including anti-inflammatory and anticancerous effects. The chemical investigation of biologically active compounds from endophytic fungi Melaleuca leucadendra Linn. have not yet been stated. Results: One new compound, namely nigaurdiol (1), along with five known compounds, xyloketal K (2), bostrycin (3), deoxybostrycin (4), xylanthraquinone (5), and ergosterol (6), were isolated from the Melaleuca leucadendra Linn. associated fungal strain Nigrospora aurantiaca#TMU062. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data and compared with literature. All isolated compounds were evaluated for inhibitory effect of NO production in LPS-activated microglial BV-2 cells. Conclusions: Compound 6 exhibited considerable inhibitory effect on NO production with IC50 values of 7.2 ± 1.4 µM and the survival rate of the cells was 90.8 ± 6.7% at the concentration of 10 µM.
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