© 2018 Background/Purpose: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a monoclonal plasma cell malignancy. The primary choice of treatment for MM is induction therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). This study aimed to analyze the treatment efficacy of ASCT in a Taiwanese cohort and evaluate possible prognostic factors. Methods: From the database of the Taiwan Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry, data on 396 patients with MM who underwent ASCT were reviewed. Results: The average age of participants was 54.8 years, and there were more men than women (57.6% vs. 42.4%). Most patients were diagnosed with IgG-type myeloma (52.4%), followed by IgA-type (23.2%) and light-chain type (21.4%). Patients with Durie Salmon Staging System (DSS) III disease accounted for 61.9% of the study cohort, while 23.7% had stage II and 14.4% had stage I disease. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after ASCT were 46.5 months and 70.4 months, respectively. DSS III was a poor prognostic factor affecting both PFS and OS with a duration of 35.9 months and 69.0 months, respectively, compared with the other two stages (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03, respectively). In addition, patients with better treatment response before ASCT had better PFS and OS compared with those who did not show a response (both p < 0.0001). The overall incidence of organ toxicities associated with transplantation was low. Conclusion: In conclusion, our cohort showed that myeloma patients with early DSS and better treatment response before ASCT had better long-term survival outcomes.