Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by diminished secretory function of the exocrine glands. Treatments for hyposalivation are limited to the use of saliva substitutes and medications that provide only temporary relief. In light of the high degree of need and the limitations of current therapies, development of alternative treatments to restore functioning is essential. Resolvins (Rv), which are highly potent lipid mediators, offer a viable alternative for better treating inflammatory diseases such as SS. The goal of this study was to determine whether systemic preventive treatment with Aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) reduces inflammation and preserves secretory functioning in NOD/ShiLtJ SS-like mice. Our results indicate that systemic treatment with AT-RvD1 diminishes the progression of the disease in salivary epithelium from female mice as follows: (a) improves secretory function, (b) reduces pro-inflammatory molecule gene expression, (c) increases anti-inflammatory molecule gene expression and (d) induces M2 macrophage polarization. Finally, AT-RvD1 decreases lymphocytic infiltration into the salivary glands when used with small doses of the steroid, dexamethasone, and promotes the tissue healing process.
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