Objectives: Active travel promotes transport-related physical activity and inactive travel increases sedentary times. Active travel might be a modifiable and efficient approach for preventing chronic diseases in urban populations. The purpose of this study was to explore associations of active and inactive travel with urban residents’ overweight, obesity, and chronic diseases. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Taipei City through an anonymous street-intercept survey. A self-reported transport physical activity questionnaire was used to collect data on the amount of travel time using active travel modes (by walking, cycling, bus, the subway, or train) and inactive travel modes (by motorcycle or car) in the past week. Descriptive analyses, independent t-tests, a one-way ANOVA, and a logistic regression were performed for data analysis. Results: In total, 1365 urban residents responded; 391 (28.64%) participants had at least one diagnosis of a chronic disease. Participants who were female, single, aged 20–34 years, and with a college or graduate degree had a significantly higher weekly average amount of time using active travel modes than did their counterparts. The amount of residents’ travel time using the subway and train (odds ratio (OR): 0.95 [95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.99]) revealed a significant negative association, while the amounts of travel time using a car as a driver (OR: 1.08 [1.04, 1.12]) and using a car as a passenger (OR: 1.10 [1.02, 1.18]) revealed significant positive associations with the odds of all chronic diseases. Conclusions: Urban residents who engage in active travel have potential benefits of physical activity and health promotion. Transforming urban residents from inactive into active commuters is recommended to prevent chronic diseases in urban populations.
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