The association between short-term exposure to particulate air pollution, especially fine particles, and cardiopulmonary health has been well-established in previous studies. However, previous findings regarding the effect of ultrafine particles (UFPs) on cardiopulmonary health are inconsistent. We repeatedly measured the mass concentrations of UFPs using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) in the apartments of 100 adult participants and collected the participants' health data from the pulmonary outpatient unit of Shuang-Ho Hospital to investigate the association between short-term exposure to UFPs and cardiopulmonary health using mixed-effects models from January 1, 2014 to August 31, 2017. We also collected ambient air pollution monitoring data from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration for data analysis. We observed that an interquartile range increase in the 24-hour mean UFPs (0.97 μg/m3) was associated with a 6.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.9, 9.7], 5.6% (95% CI = 4.1, 7.1) and 8.5% (95% CI = 3.9, 13.1) increase in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and high sensitivity-C-reactive protein, respectively. We also observed the association of particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in diameter and nitrogen dioxide with increased blood pressure and ozone with decreased lung function. A negative trend between UFPs and forced expiratory volume in the first second was observed. We concluded that short-term exposure to UFPs was associated with cardiovascular health in adult subjects in the urban areas of northern Taiwan.
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