Objectives: We investigated the association of thiazolidinedione and its dose effect with the risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: This study enrolled 38,521 patients with newly-diagnosed DM, between 2001 and 2013, and compared them to the matched subjects without DM. The hazard ratios (HRs) for PD were compared between the thiazolidinedione-treated and non-thiazolidinedione-treated groups of the study cohort, and between subgroups who received different cumulative dosages of thiazolidinedione. Results: We observed that 544 (1.4%) patients developed PD during the follow-up median duration of 6.2 years in patients with newly-diagnosed DM or had a higher risk for PD than patients without DM (HR = 1.150). In the study cohort, the risk of PD was significantly lower in the thiazolidinedione-treated group (HR = 0.399) compared to the non-thiazolidinedione-treated group. Thiazolidinedione reduced the risk of PD in a dose-dependent manner, with HRs ranging from 0.613 to 0.081 with defined daily doses of 0–90 to >720, respectively. Conclusions: Thiazolidinedione use was associated with a significantly reduced risk of PD in patients with newly-diagnosed DM. Further studies to elucidate the common mechanism of PD and DM may provide novel therapies for these two diseases.Key messages Newly-diagnosed diabetes mellitus slightly increases the risk for Parkinson’s disease. Thiazolidinedione is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease in a dose-dependent manner in patients with newly-diagnosed diabetes mellitus.
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