The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations with developmental delays and to explore the association of these concentrations with the health status of children. This study recruited 89 children with developmental delays and 89 age-and sex-matched children with typical development. Their health status was evaluated using the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Inventory for health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument for function. Family function was also evaluated. Blood lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations were measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The children with developmental delays had a considerably poorer HRQOL, lower functional performance and family function, and a higher blood lead concentration than those with typical development. The blood lead concentration had a significantly positive association with developmental delays [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, p < 0.01] in a dose-response manner, and it negatively correlated with PedsQL scores (regression coefficient:-0. 47 to-0.53, p < 0.05) in all the children studied. The higher blood cadmium concentration showed a significantly positive association with developmental delays (OR = 2.24, for >1.0 μg/L vs. <0.6 μg/L, p < 0.05). The blood mercury concentration was not associated with developmental delays and health status.
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Hsueh, Y. M., Lee, C. Y., Chien, S. N., Chen, W. J., Shiue, H. S., Huang, S. R., Lin, M. I., Mu, S. C., & Hsieh, R. L. (2017). Association of blood heavy metals with developmental delays and health status in children. Scientific Reports, 7, . https://doi.org/10.1038/srep43608