Objective: The effect of statins and fibrates on the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of statins and fibrates on the risk of COPD in patients with hyperlipidemia. Patients and Methods: This study involved a retrospective cohort with a follow-up period of 6 years. We identified patients who were diagnosed as having hyperlipidemia between 2000 and 2016 from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of COPD among different groups. The dose-related effects of statins and fibrates on the risk of COPD were evaluated according to the defined daily dose (DDD). Results: Patients with hyperlipidemia not using statins and fibrates (group II) had a significantly higher risk of COPD compared with their comparison group, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.091 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.034–1.152, p < 0.01]. Dose-dependent reduction in the risk of COPD was observed in patients with hyperlipidemia using statins or fibrates compared with patients not using them. Moreover, with an increase in cumulative exposure, a reduced risk of COPD was observed in patients using more than 361 DDDs, with an adjusted HR of 0.474 (95% CI: 0.401–0.559, p < 0.001). Patients on fibrate monotherapy using more than 541 DDDs were observed to have an adjusted HR of 0.454 (95% CI: 0.226–0.910, p < 0.05) and those on statin monotherapy with over 361 DDDs were noted to have an adjusted HR of 0.583 (95% CI: 0.459–0.740, p < 0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that an increase in the cumulative exposure of statins and fibrates significantly reduced the risk of COPD in patients with hyperlipidemia, and the risk reduction appeared to be significantly dose dependent.
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