Background: Pain is one of the most common symptoms experienced by patients with endstage renal disease. Although NSAIDs may lead to adverse events, NSAID use appears to be considerably high in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, whether NSAID use is associated with an increased risk of mortality in this population remains unknown. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the association between the use of NSAIDs and the risk of mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. Patients and methods: We used the population-based Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the association between the use of NSAIDs and the risk of mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving dialysis. A total of 3,383 patients with newly diagnosed end-stage renal disease requiring long-term dialysis between 1998 and 2012 were included in the current study, and the study outcome was evaluated until December 31, 2013. Time-dependent Cox regression models were applied to examine the association between NSAID use and mortality risk. Results: In the study cohort, 2,623 (78%) patients used NSAIDs during the follow-up period. The median follow-up period was 4.0 years, during which 1,515 patients died. The results of multivariable analysis demonstrated that compared with NSAID nonuse, the use of any NSAIDs, nonselective NSAIDs, and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality with an adjusted HR (95% CI) of 1.39 (1.21-1.60), 1.36 (1.19-1.55), and 1.61 (1.42-1.83), respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that NSAID use was associated with an increased risk of mortality in the patients with end-stage renal disease. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to validate these observational findings.
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