OBJECTIVE • To explore the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with prior kidney calculus, ureter calculus, and bladder calculus using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. Several studies have estimated the potential association of urinary calculus (UC) with CKD. However, previous literature focusing on this issue tended to evaluate the impact of kidney stones alone on incident CKD, with no studies having been conducted investigating the association between CKD and stone formation in other portions of the urological system. PATIENTS AND METHODS • We identified 21 474 patients who received their first-time diagnosis of CKD between 2001 and 2009. • The 21 474 controls were frequencymatched with cases for sex, age group, and index year. • We used conditional logistic regression analyses to compute the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) as an estimation of association between CKD and having been previously diagnosed with UC. RESULTS • The results show that compared with controls, the OR of prior UC for cases was 1.91 (95% CI 1.81-2.01, P <0.001) after adjusting for potential confounders. • Furthermore, cases were consistently more likely than controls to have been previously diagnosed with kidney calculus (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.95-2.27), ureter calculus (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.51-1.85), bladder calculus (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.13-1.98), and unspecified UC (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.74-2.06). CONCLUSION • We concluded that there was an association between ckd and UC regardless of stone location.
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