PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to present the results of arthroscopy-assisted corrective osteotomy (AACO), reduction, internal fixation, and strut allograft augmentation for tibial plateau malunion or nonunion.
METHODS: Fifty-eight patients, mean age 49 ± 11.9 years old, with tibial plateau malunion (n = 44) or nonunion (n = 14), were included in this study. There were 19 Schatzker type II fractures (32.7%), 2 type III fractures (3.4%), 7 type IV fractures (12%), 20 type V fractures (34.5%), and 10 type VI fractures (17.2%). The mean follow-up period was 46.2 ± 17.6 months. Clinical and radiologic outcomes were scored by the Rasmussen system. Articular depression was measured from computed tomography. Secondary osteoarthritis was diagnosed when radiographs showed a narrowed joint space in the injured knee at follow-up.
RESULTS: Mean clinical score improved from 15.4 ± 3.9 (pre-revision) to 23.2 ± 4.5 (post-revision). Mean radiologic score improved from 7.7 ± 2.5 (pre-revision) to 12.0 ± 3.9 (post-revision). Fifty-six fractures achieved successful union. The average union time was 19.6 ± 7.5 weeks. Post-revision, 81% had good or excellent clinical results and 62% had good or excellent radiological results. Secondary osteoarthritis (OA) was noted in 91% of all injured knees, where 25.8% were mild OA, 25.8 % were moderate OA, and 38% were severe OA. There were 6 cases of deep infection (10.3%) and 1 case of wound edge necrosis (1.7%). Five cases were converted to total knee replacement after the index surgery with an average period of 13.5 months (range 8-24 months).
CONCLUSIONS: Arthroscopy-assisted corrective osteotomy, reduction, internal fixation, and strut allograft augmentation can restore tibial plateau malunion/nonunion with well-documented radiographic healing and good clinical outcomes.