Background: To date, it remains unsettled whether aortic arch calcification (AAC) has prognostic value in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods: From January 1 to December 31, 2013, a total of 225 patients with acute coronary syndrome (mean age 72 ± 26 years, 75% male) were enrolled in this study. Patients admitted to the coronary care unit of a tertiary referral medical center under the preliminary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome were retrospectively investigated. The primary endpoint was composite of long-term major adverse cardiovascular events. The secondary endpoints were 30-day and long-term all-cause mortality. Results: Of the 225 patients enrolled in this study, 143 had detectable AAC. Those who had AAC were older, with higher Killip classification and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) score with a lower probability of single vessel disease. Acute coronary syndrome patients with AAC had significantly higher 30-day mortality (17.3% vs. 7.1%, log-rank p = 0.02). During a mean follow-up period of 165 ± 140 days (maximum 492 days), the calcification group had significantly increased cardiovascular deaths (27.6% vs. 11.2%, log-rank p = 0.002), all-cause mortality (28.3% vs. 11.2%, log-rank p = 0.001) and composite endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular events (39.4% vs. 24.6%, log-rank p = 0.01). After adjusting for age, gender, diabetes mellitus and hypertension, AAC was an independent risk factor for primary and secondary endpoints among patients with acute coronary syndrome. Conclusions: AAC provided valuable prognostic information on clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome. However, different treatment strategies would be warranted for optimal risk reduction in such a population.
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