Background: Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is principally associated with erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP), mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), and pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Methods: Serum autoantibodies including antigastric parietal cell antibody (GPCA), antithyroglobulin antibody (TGA), and antithyroid microsomal antibody (TMA) were measured in 500 patients with DG, 287 EOLP without DG (EOLP/DG − ) patients, and 100 healthy control subjects. Results: The 500 patients with DG were diagnosed as having EOLP in 455 (91%), PV in 40 (8%), and MMP in five (1%) patients. We found that 37.0%, 43.6%, and 42.6% of 500 patients with DG, 39.6%, 46.4%, and 45.1% of 455 EOLP with DG (EOLP/DG) patients, and 18.5%, 27.5%, and 30.3% of 287 EOLP/DG − patients had the presence of GPCA, TGA, and TMA in their sera, respectively. DG, EOLP/DG, and EOLP/DG − patients all had a significantly higher frequency of GPCA, TGA, or TMA positivity than healthy control subjects (all P-values < 0.001). Moreover, 455 EOLP/DG patients had a significantly higher frequency of GPCA, TGA, or TMA positivity than 287 EOLP/DG − patients (all P-values < 0.001). Of 210 TGA/TMA-positive patients with DG whose serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured, 84.3%, 6.7%, and 9.0% patients had normal, lower, and higher serum TSH levels, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that 73.4% DG, 77.1% EOLP/DG, and 47.4% EOLP/DG − patients may have GPCA/TGA/TMA positivity in their sera. Because part of GPCA-positive patients may develop pernicious anemia, autoimmune atrophic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma, and part of TGA/TMA-positive patients may have thyroid dysfunction, these patients should be referred to medical department for further management.
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