Located in tropical and subtropical region, Taiwan is an island with high algal species diversity. In this study, a number of fungal strains were isolated from marine macroalgae collected from northeastern intertidal zone of Taiwan. Preliminary anti-inflammatory screening has shown that the methanolic extracts of solid fermented products of the red alga Mastophora rosea-derived fungal strain Acremonium sp. NTU492 exhibited significant bioactivity. In an attempt to disclose the active principles from this fungal strain, a series of separation and purification was thus undertaken, which has led to the isolation and characterization of seven compounds including four new peptides, namely acrepeptins A‒D (1e4), along with previously reported destruxin B (5), guangomide A (6), and guangomide B (7). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and compared with literatures. Of these, acrepeptins A (1) and C (3) showed markedly inhibitory activities on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial BV-2 cells with IC50 values of 12.0 ± 2.3 and 10.6 ± 4.0 mM, respectively. Furthermore, acrepeptins A (1) and C (3) significantly attenuated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a concentration-dependent manner (5e40 mM).
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