The purpose of this study was to examine anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Antrodia salmonea (EAS) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW246.7 macrophages and the carrageenan (Carr)-induced edema paw model, and to clarify its possible molecular mechanisms. Inhibitory effects of EAS were examined on cells proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins, and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Our data demonstrated that EAS inhibited cell growth, NO production, and expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins in LPS-stimulated RAW246.7 cells. EAS can also significantly reduce paw edema, content of NO, TNF-α and malondialdehyde (MDA), expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins, and neutrophil infiltration within the tissues stimulated by Carr. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of EAS might be related to the decrease of inflammatory cytokine and increase of antioxidant enzymes activities, which would result in reduction of iNOS, COX-2 and MDA and subsequently inflammatory responses.
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