Using a multistep human urothelial model, we previously showed that green tea extract (GTE) selectively modulates actin remodeling in transformed cells (MC-T11), which resulted in increased cell adhesion and reduced cell motility (Lu et al., Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:1675-83). This study further analyzed which actin binding proteins (ABPs) might be involved in this process. Proteomic profiles of GTE treated and untreated MC-T11 cells using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) identified 20 GTE-induced proteins. Among them, 3 were ABPs (tropomodulin, cofilin and annexin-I), and only annexin-I showed a dose- and time-dependent expression. The increased annexin-I correlated with actin remodeling, and was the result of transcription level up-regulation, as determined by RT-PCR, pull-down immunoblot and siRNA analyses. 5-Azacytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor, exhibited no effect on annexin-I expression when used alone, but had an additive effect for GTE-induced annexin-I expression. Immunohistochemistry of bladder cancer tissue array showed a decrease of annexin-I expression in carcinoma in situ and low grade papillary carcinoma (n = 32, 0% positive) compared to nontumor urothelium (n = 18, 89% positive) (p < 0.001 by Fisher exact test), but increased in some (6 of 15, 40%) high-grade tumors. Together, GTE induced annexin-I expression plays a role in regulating actin remodeling and decreased annexin-I expression is a common event in early stage of bladder cancer development.
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