It remains unclear how different uses of angiotensin-converting inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) influence the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study explored CKD progression in a multicentre, longitudinal cohort study that included 2639 patients with CKD stage 1–5 and hypertension. Patients treated with ACEI or ARB for ≥90 days during a 6-mo period comprised the study group, or no treatment, comprised the control group. The study group was subdivided on the basis of treatment: ACEI monotherapy or ARB monotherapy. Progression of renal deterioration was defined by an average eGFR decline of more than 5 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /yr or the commencement of dialysis. With at least 1-year follow up, a progression of renal deterioration was demonstrated in 29.70% of the control group and 25.09% of the study group. Patients in the study group had significantly reduced progression of CKD with adjusted odds ratio 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.63–0.99). However, when ACEI monotherapy and ARB monotherapy were analyzed separately, none of their associations with CKD progression was statistically significant. In conclusion, ACEI or ARB monotherapy may retard the deterioration of renal function among patients with CKD and hypertension.