Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode that causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. A high infestation of A. cantonensis can cause permanent brain damage or even death. The inflammasome is an oligomeric molecular platform that can detect microbial pathogens and activate inflammatory cytokines. The recognition of larval surface antigens by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) can cause oligomerization of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) or absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) with the adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) to form a caspase-1-activating scaffold. Activated caspase-1 converts pro-inflammatory cytokines into their mature, active forms. Helminths infection has been shown to activate NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of inflammasome activation upon A. cantonensis infection in a mouse model. This study provides evidence that A. cantonensis infection can activate NLRP1B and NLRC4 inflammasomes and promote pyroptosis to cause meningoencephalitis.
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