Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a type of T-cell lymphoma with a relatively favorable prognosis. However, a certain group of ALCLs is highly aggressive, featuring paraneoplastic leukocytosis (PL) in clinical presentation. The present study evaluated five cases of ALCL presenting with PL, including four men and one woman, with a median age of 58years. All cases revealed leukocytosis with a range from 15.3 to 112.9×10 3/μL. Five (100%) and 4 (80%) cases demonstrated immunoreactivity for granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), respectively. There were significant differences in the expression of G-CSF and TNF-α between ALCL cases with or without PL (p<0.05 for both). The prognosis of ALCL patients with PL was poor. Four of five patients (80%) died of the disease within a median survival time of 3.5weeks. The release of G-CSF and TNF-α from lymphoma cells may associate with ALCL presenting with PL, leading to cytokine crisis and even poorer prognosis.
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