Usually, a drug is loaded onto the metallic surface of a medical device by applying a polymer layer containing the drug. Unfortunately, polymer coatings on the metallic surface may exhibit numerous problems after implantation, such as late thrombosis, inflammation, and restenosis. Current research was conducted to investigate whether a suitable oxide layer can be used as a polymer-free platform for drug loading, especially for cardiovascular stents. The loading of heparin onto, as well as eluting of heparin from, the amorphous oxide film on the 316LVM stainless steel wire was confirmed by experimental studies using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and activated clotting time (ACT). Evidence shows that amorphous oxide can be an ideal substitute for the polymer coating of drug-loaded stents to minimize metallic corrosion, inflammation, late-thrombosis, and restenosis.
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