At thyroid hormone response elements on specific genes, complexes of nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T 3), coactivator or corepressor nucleoproteins, and histone acetylases or deacetylases mediate genomic effects of the hormone. Nongenomic effects of the hormone are those whose initiation does not primarily depend upon formation of the TR-T3 complex. Among the nongenomic effects of thyroid hormone are a set of actions initiated at a cell surface receptor on integrin αvβ3 that are relevant to a) intracellular trafficking of proteins, including TRβ1, b) serine phosphorylation and acetylation of this nuclear receptor, c) assembly within the nucleus of complexes of coactivators and corepressor, and d) transcription of specific genes, including that for TRβ1. These actions initiated at αvβ3 are reviewed here and appear to be adjunctive to the genomic actions of the TR-T3 complex.
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