Extensive adenomyosis (adenomyosis) or its variance, localized adenomyosis (adenomyoma) of the uterus, is often described as scattered, widely-distributed endometrial glands or stromal tissue found throughout the myometrium layer of the uterus. By definition, adenomyosis consists of epithelial as well as stromal elements, and is situated at least 2.5 mm below the endometrial-myometrial junction. However, the diagnosis and clinical significance of uterine adenomyosis and/or adenomyoma remain somewhat enigmatic. The relationship between infertility and uterine adenomyosis and/or adenomyoma is still uncertain, but severe endometriosis impairs the chances of successful pregnancy when using artificial reproductive techniques. To date, there is no uniform agreement on the most appropriate therapeutic methods for managing women with uterine adenomyosis and/or adenomyoma who want to preserve their fertility. Fertility has been restored after successful treatment of adenomyosis using multiple modalities, including hormonal therapy and conservative surgical therapy via laparoscopy or exploratory laparotomy, uterine artery embolization, and other methods, including a potential but under- investigated procedure, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound. This review will explore recent publications that have addressed the use of different approaches in the management of subfertile women with uterine adenomyosis and adenomyoma.
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