Active and intelligent packaging films with multiple functions including antioxidant, antibacterial and colorimetric pH indicator properties were developed by incorporating Clitoria ternatea (CT) extract into gellan gum (G) film. G enhanced the stability of CT anthocyanins and allowed the anthocyanins to release from G film in a pH-responsive behavior. Heat-treated soy protein isolate (HSPI) was able to interact with G and CT anthocyanins through the formation of electrostatic forces and covalent bonds. G film blended with HSPI greatly reduced the swelling capacity of G/HSPI composite film and controlled the anthocyanins release at pH greater than 6.0. The physical and mechanical properties of G films such as hydrophobicity, water vapor permeability, swelling capacity and tensile strength were also significantly modified by addition of HSPI to G films. The smart films changed their color with the increase of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) values during progressive spoilage of shrimp, revealing their potential application for monitoring seafood freshness.
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