The present study established a maximum standard for printing quality and developed a preliminary ideal index to print three-dimensional (3D) construct using the Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp (GRGD) peptide modified Pluronic-F127 hydrogel (hereafter defined as 3DG bioformer (3BE)) as bioink. In addition, the biocompatibility of 3BE for 3D printing applications was carefully investigated. For biocompatibility study and ideal printing parameter, we used the formulation of 3BE in three different concentrations (3BE-1: 25%, 3BE-2: 30%, and 3BE-3: 35%). The 3BE hydrogels were printed layer by layer as a cube-like construct with all diameters of the needle head under the same feed (100 mm/s). The printing parameters were determined using combinations of 3BE-1, 3BE-2, and 3BE-3 with three different standard needle sizes (F 0.13 mm, Φ 0.33 mm, and Φ 0.9 mm). The printed constructs were photographed and observed using optical microscopy. The cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using Live/Dead assay and immunofluorescence staining. Results showed that a stable of printed line and construct could be generated from the 3BE-3 combinations. Cytotoxicity assay indicated that the 3BE hydrogels possessed well biocompatibility. Bioprinting results also demonstrated that significant cell proliferation in the 3BE-3 combinations was found within three days of printing. Therefore, the study discovered the potential printing parameters of 3BE as bioink to print a stable construct that may also have high biocompatibility for cell encapsulation. This finding could serve as valuable information in creating a functional scaffold for tissue engineering applications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Computer Science Applications
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes