Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty (PBVP) was performed in 55 children, aged from four days to twelve years and nine months, with different severity of congenital pulmonary stenosis (PS). To evaluate its efficacy, a quantitative analysis of the structure of right ventricle-pulmonary artery junction was conducted. Significant reductions of peak systolic right ventricular pressure, ratio of peak right-to-left ventricular pressure, and pressure gradients between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery were obtained in 48 children who scored 3 or less (Group I) and 7 children who scored over 3 (Group II) (P<0.05). After two to forty-six months (M ± SD = 17.1 ±15.5 months) of follow-up study, the residual gradients between right ventricle and pulmonary artery over 36 mmHg were higher in children who scored over 3 than in those who scored 3 or less (71.4% vs 20.8%) (P<0.01). Repeated percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty was successfully performed in 4 children, 2 each in Group I and Group II. Surgical open pulmonary valvotomy was needed in 1 in Group II because of the dysplastic pulmonary valve and the need for repair of atrial septal defect and in 2 in Group I because of the failure to complete repeated PBVP in the catheterization laboratory or the need for repair of associated atrial septal defect.
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