Aim: To understand how the medications are managed by the multidisciplinary team and their suggestions for nursing management, and to develop a framework for safe medication management in hospital-based outpatient. Background: More than 80% of hospital-based outpatient visits involve medication prescriptions, indicating the importance of safe medication management there. Methods: This was a qualitative study with face-to-face interviews with physicians, nurses and pharmacists from 11 medical outpatient units. Results: Four themes elicited were categorized as follows: unclear professional roles and functions in outpatient medication management; intertwined communications; moving from data to wisdom; and ambiguous culture of safety. The resulting model is a collaboration of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and patients and families integrated with hospital administrative support and information technology in a culture of safety. Conclusions: Medication management in outpatient is critical but usually overlooked. Nursing leaders should develop a culture of safety and provide more support and training for nurses to provide comprehensive medication management for outpatients. Implications for Nursing Management: It is important to develop outpatient nurses' role and competence in managing patient medication safety. Nurses in management would benefit from applying the 'framework of efficient and safe medication management for outpatients' to assess and identify weak areas for improvement.
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