Acute leukemia is a highly heterogeneous disease; therefore, combination therapy is commonly used for patient treatment. Drug–drug interaction is a major concern of combined therapy; hence, dual/multi-target inhibitors have become a dominant approach for cancer drug development. HDACs and HSP90 are involved in the activation of various oncogenic signaling pathways, including PI3K/AKT/mTOR, JAK/STAT, and RAF/MEK/ERK, which are also highly enriched in acute leukemia gene expression profiles. Therefore, we suggest that dual HDAC and HSP90 inhibitors could represent a novel therapeutic approach for acute leukemia. MPT0G449 is a dual effect inhibitor, and it showed cytotoxic effectiveness in acute leukemia cells. Molecular docking analysis indicated that MPT0G449 possessed dual HDAC and HSP90 inhibitory abilities. Furthermore, MPT0G449 induced G2 arrest and caspase-mediated cell apoptosis in acute leukemia cells. The oncogenic signaling molecules AKT, mTOR, STAT3, STAT5, MEK, and ERK were significantly downregulated after MPT0G449 treatment in HL-60 and MOLT-4 cells. In vivo xenograft models confirmed the antitumor activity and showed the upregulation of acetyl-histone H3 and HSP70, biomarkers of pan-HDAC and HSP90 inhibition, with MPT0G449 treatment. These findings suggest that the dual inhibition of HDAC and HSP90 can suppress the expression of oncogenic pathways in acute leukemia, and MPT0G449 represents a novel therapeutic for anticancer treatment.
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