Background: Cardiac sympathetic response (CSR) and malnutrition-inflammation syndrome (MIS) score are validated assessment tools for patients' health condition. We aim to evaluate the joint effect of CSR and MIS on all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in patients with hemodialysis (HD). Methods: Changes in normalized low frequency (ΔnLF) during HD were utilized for quantification of CSR. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of mortality risks were analyzed in different groups of ΔnLF and MIS score. Results: In multivariate analysis, higher ΔnLF was related to all-cause, CV and sudden cardiac deaths [aHR: 0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72–0.85), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70–0.87), and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.63–0.87), respectively]. Higher MIS score was associated with incremental risks of all-cause, CV and sudden cardiac deaths [aHR: 1.36 (95% CI: 1.13–1.63), 1.33 (95% CI: 1.06 – 1.38), and 1.50 (95% CI: 1.07–2.11), respectively]. Patients with combined lower ΔnLF (≤6.8 nu) and higher MIS score were at the greatest risk of all-cause and CV mortality [aHR: 5.64 (95% CI: 1.14–18.09) and 5.86 (95% CI: 1.64–13.65), respectively]. Conclusion: Our data indicate a joint evaluation of CSR and MIS score to identify patients at high risk of death is more comprehensive and convincing. Considering the extremely high prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy and malnutrition-inflammation cachexia in HD population, a non-invasive monitoring system composed of CSR analyzer and MIS score calculator should be developed in the artificial intelligence-based prediction of clinical events.
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