Mounting evidence demonstrates that a high-salt diet (HSD) not only affects hemodynamic changes but also disrupts immune homeostasis. The T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) are susceptible to hypersalinity. However, research on the influence of sodium on Th2-mediated food allergies remains scarce. We aimed to investigate the effect of dietary sodium on the immune response to food allergies. Mice maintained on an HSD (4% NaCl), low-salt diet (LSD; 0.4% NaCl), or control diet (CTRL; 1.0% NaCl) were orally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and a cholera toxin (CT) adjuvant, and then subjected to an intragastric OVA challenge. OVA-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1, IgG2a, and IgE antibodies were significantly higher in the HSD group than in the CTRL group (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05, respectively). Mice on HSD had significantly higher interleukin (IL)-4 levels than the CTRL group (p < 0.01). The IL-10 levels were significantly lower in the HSD group than in the CTRL group (p < 0.05). The serum levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), sodium, and chloride did not differ among the three groups. This study indicates that excessive salt intake promotes Th2 responses in a mouse model of food allergy.
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