Objective: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease with significant clinical diversity. However, the aetiology, pathogenesis and optimal treatment of UC remain unclear. The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the association between previously diagnosed hyperthyroidism and UC using a large population-based data set in Taiwan. Methods: The data for this population-based case-control study were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We included 2709 patients with UC as cases and 8127 sex- and age-matched patients without UC as controls. A conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to compute the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between UC and prior hyperthyroidism. Results: We found that, in total, 327 of the 10 836 sampled patients (3.02%) had previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. There was a higher proportion of prior hyperthyroidism among cases than controls (4.10% vs 2.66%, P<.001). A conditional logistic regression showed that the OR of prior hyperthyroidism was 1.57 (95% CI=1.24-1.98) compared to controls. Similarly, after adjusting for monthly income, geographic location and urbanization level, cases were still more likely to have previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism than controls (OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.27-2.05). Furthermore, we analysed the ORs of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls according to age group. We found that of the youngest group of sampled patients (18-39 years), cases had the greatest adjusted OR for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism than controls (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.04-3.79). Conclusions: This study demonstrated an association between UC and hyperthyroidism.
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