Background: This study aimed to investigate the regenerative effects of 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside (THSG)-treated human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) on the healing of experimental periodontal defects in rats. Materials and methods: The maxillary first molars of 30 male Sprague–Dawley rats were extracted, and after healing, bilateral periodontal defects were surgically created mesially in second molars. The defects were treated with Matrigel (as control), DPSC, or DPSC + THSG. After 2 weeks, the healed defects were evaluated using microcomputed tomography and through histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results: In the microcomputed tomography analysis, more new bone formation in the DPSC and DPSC + THSG groups was observed compared with the control group. The periodontal bone supporting ratio in site with DPSC + THSG was significantly higher than that in DPSC. Histologically, an enhanced new bone formation and more significant periodontal attachment were observed in the DPSC + THSG group. The expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and osteopontin (OPN) in the DPSC + THSG group were significantly greater than those in other groups. Conclusions: THSG-revolutionized DPSCs significantly shortened the regenerative period of periodontal defects by enhancing the cell recruitment and possibly the angiogenesis in rat models, which illustrate the critical implications for a clinical application and provide a novel tactic for periodontitis treatment.
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