Background/Purpose: Nuclear localization of β-catenin is known to associate with malignant transformation of many squamous cell carcinomas. The aim of this study was to compare β-catenin expression in normal human oral epithelium and areca quid chewing associated oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and further to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce β-catenin expression. Methods: A total of 40 areca quid chewing-associated OSCCs and 10 normal oral tissue biopsy samples without areca quid chewing were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The oral epithelial cell line GNM cells were challenged with arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, by using Western blot analysis. Furthermore, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase inhibitor PD98059, glutathione precursor N-acetyl- l-cysteine (NAC), tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin-A, p38 inhibitor SB203580, and phosphatidylinositaol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 were added to find the possible regulatory mechanisms. Results: β-catenin expression was significantly higher in OSCC specimens than that in normal oral epithelial specimens (p < 0.05). It was demonstrated that normal oral epithelium showed only membranous staining for β-catenin, and membranous staining was lost or reduced with an increase in cytoplasmic/nuclear staining in OSCCs. Arecoline was found to elevate β-catenin expression in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). The addition of PD98059, NAC, herbimycin-A, SB203580, and LY294002 markedly inhibited the arecoline-induced β-catenin expression (p < 0.05). Conclusion: β-catenin expression is significantly upregulated in areca quid chewing-associated OSCC. The localization of β-catenin expression is correlated with the tumor size and clinical stage. In addition, β-catenin expression induced by arecoline is downregulated by PD98059, NAC, herbimycin-A, SB203580, and LY294002.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- 醫藥 (全部)