Abstract Background Gastrointestinal microbiota, particularly gut microbiota, is associated with human health. The biodiversity of gut microbiota is affected by ethnicities and environmental factors such as dietary habits or medicine intake, and three enterotypes of the human gut microbiome were announced in 2011. These enterotypes are not significantly correlated with gender, age, or body weight but are influenced by long-term dietary habits. However, to date, only two enterotypes (predominantly consisting of Bacteroides and Prevotella) have shown these characteristics in previous research; the third enterotype remains ambiguous. Understanding the enterotypes can improve the knowledge of the relationship between microbiota and human health. Results We obtained 181 human fecal samples from adults in Taiwan. Microbiota compositions were analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, which is a culture-independent method of constructing microbial community profiles by sequencing 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In these samples, 17,675,898 sequencing reads were sequenced, and on average, 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified for each sample. In this study, the major bacteria in the enterotypes identified from the fecal samples were Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Enterobacteriaceae, and their correlation with dietary habits was confirmed. A microbial interaction network in the gut was observed on the basis of the amount of short-chain fatty acids, pH value of the intestine, and composition of the bacterial community (enterotypes). Finally, a decision tree was derived to provide a predictive model for the three enterotypes. The accuracies of this model in training and independent testing sets were 97.2 and 84.0%, respectively. Conclusions We used NGS technology to characterize the microbiota and constructed a predictive model. The most significant finding was that Enterobacteriaceae, the predominant subtype, could be a new subtype of enterotypes in the Asian population.