Objective Both adenomyosis and endometriosis are characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma and have been suggested to share some characteristics with malignant tumors. Although accumulating evidence indicates that endometriosis is associated with some cancer types, the cancer risks in patients with adenomyosis have been rarely examined. In this study, we investigated the relationship between adenomyosis and risks of common cancers. Methods This study included a cohort of 12,447 women with adenomyosis but not endometriosis, born in 1951–1984, and a cohort of 124,470 adenomyosis-free women matched by birth year. Their medical records (collected between 1996 and 2011) were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. We first compared the distribution of cancer-free survival (CFS) between cohorts with and without adenomyosis. Subsequently, within the adenomyosis cohort, we examined whether time-to-onset of the identified cancer type was correlated with time-to-onset of adenomyosis. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the distribution of CFS between the adenomyosis and adenomyosis-free cohorts and between the early- and late-diagnosed adenomyosis groups. For comparison, we further evaluated the cancer risks for a cohort of 10,962 women with endometriosis but not adenomyosis and a birth-year matched cohort of 109,620 endometriosis-free women. Results Compared with adenomyosis-free women, patients with adenomyosis had higher risks of endometrial and thyroid cancers, with estimated hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence interval) of 2.19 (1.51–3.16) and 1.70 (1.29–2.24), respectively. For both cancers, distributions of CFS were not significantly different between the early- and late-diagnosed adenomyosis groups. Furthermore, compared with endometriosis-free women, patients with endometriosis had higher risks of endometrial and ovarian cancers, with HRs of 1.89 (1.07–3.35) and 2.01 (1.27–3.16), respectively. Conclusions Women with adenomyosis are at higher risks of endometrial and thyroid cancers, while women with endometriosis are at higher risks of endometrial and ovarian cancers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)