Wogonin, baicalin, and baicalein inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expressions induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and lipopolysaccharide

Yen Chou Chen, Shing Chuan Shen, Lih Geeng Chen, Tony J F Lee, Ling-Ling Yang

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Abstract

We previously reported that oroxylin A, a polyphenolic compound, was a potent inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In the present study, three oroxylin A structurally related polyphenols isolated from the Chinese herb Huang Qui, namely baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin, were examined for their effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and iNOS and COX-2 gene expressions in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that these three polyphenolic compounds inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a concentration-dependent manner without a notable cytotoxic effect on these cells. The decrease in NO production was in parallel with the inhibition by these polyphenolic compounds of LPS-induced iNOS gene expression. However, these three compounds did not directly affect iNOS enzyme activity. In addition, wogonin, but not baicalin or baicalein, inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and COX-2 gene expression without affecting COX-2 enzyme activity. Furthermore, N-nitro-L-arginine (NLA) and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment enhanced LPS-induced iNOS (but not COX-2) protein expression, which was inhibited by these three polyphenolic compounds. Wogonin, but not baicalin or baicalein, similarly inhibited PGE2 production and COX-2 protein expression in NLA/LPS or L-NAME/LPS-co-treated RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicated that co-treatment with NOS inhibitors and polyphenolic compounds such as wogonin effectively blocks acute production of NO and, at the same time, inhibits expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1417-1427
Number of pages11
JournalBiochemical Pharmacology
Volume61
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2001

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Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Cyclooxygenase 2
Polyphenolic compounds
Gene expression
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Lipopolysaccharides
Gene Expression
Nitric Oxide
Enzyme activity
Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
Dinoprostone
Arginine
baicalein
baicalin
wogonin
Macrophages
Polyphenols
Enzymes
Proteins
Genes

Keywords

  • Baicalein
  • Baicalin
  • Cyclooxygenase-2
  • Inducible nitric oxide synthase
  • Lipopolysaccharide
  • Wogonin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

@article{fde76c014b2044ca98c4dc9a968f1c35,
title = "Wogonin, baicalin, and baicalein inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expressions induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and lipopolysaccharide",
abstract = "We previously reported that oroxylin A, a polyphenolic compound, was a potent inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In the present study, three oroxylin A structurally related polyphenols isolated from the Chinese herb Huang Qui, namely baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin, were examined for their effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and iNOS and COX-2 gene expressions in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that these three polyphenolic compounds inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a concentration-dependent manner without a notable cytotoxic effect on these cells. The decrease in NO production was in parallel with the inhibition by these polyphenolic compounds of LPS-induced iNOS gene expression. However, these three compounds did not directly affect iNOS enzyme activity. In addition, wogonin, but not baicalin or baicalein, inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and COX-2 gene expression without affecting COX-2 enzyme activity. Furthermore, N-nitro-L-arginine (NLA) and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment enhanced LPS-induced iNOS (but not COX-2) protein expression, which was inhibited by these three polyphenolic compounds. Wogonin, but not baicalin or baicalein, similarly inhibited PGE2 production and COX-2 protein expression in NLA/LPS or L-NAME/LPS-co-treated RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicated that co-treatment with NOS inhibitors and polyphenolic compounds such as wogonin effectively blocks acute production of NO and, at the same time, inhibits expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes.",
keywords = "Baicalein, Baicalin, Cyclooxygenase-2, Inducible nitric oxide synthase, Lipopolysaccharide, Wogonin",
author = "Chen, {Yen Chou} and Shen, {Shing Chuan} and Chen, {Lih Geeng} and Lee, {Tony J F} and Ling-Ling Yang",
year = "2001",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/S0006-2952(01)00594-9",
language = "English",
volume = "61",
pages = "1417--1427",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Wogonin, baicalin, and baicalein inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expressions induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and lipopolysaccharide

AU - Chen, Yen Chou

AU - Shen, Shing Chuan

AU - Chen, Lih Geeng

AU - Lee, Tony J F

AU - Yang, Ling-Ling

PY - 2001/6/1

Y1 - 2001/6/1

N2 - We previously reported that oroxylin A, a polyphenolic compound, was a potent inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In the present study, three oroxylin A structurally related polyphenols isolated from the Chinese herb Huang Qui, namely baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin, were examined for their effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and iNOS and COX-2 gene expressions in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that these three polyphenolic compounds inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a concentration-dependent manner without a notable cytotoxic effect on these cells. The decrease in NO production was in parallel with the inhibition by these polyphenolic compounds of LPS-induced iNOS gene expression. However, these three compounds did not directly affect iNOS enzyme activity. In addition, wogonin, but not baicalin or baicalein, inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and COX-2 gene expression without affecting COX-2 enzyme activity. Furthermore, N-nitro-L-arginine (NLA) and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment enhanced LPS-induced iNOS (but not COX-2) protein expression, which was inhibited by these three polyphenolic compounds. Wogonin, but not baicalin or baicalein, similarly inhibited PGE2 production and COX-2 protein expression in NLA/LPS or L-NAME/LPS-co-treated RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicated that co-treatment with NOS inhibitors and polyphenolic compounds such as wogonin effectively blocks acute production of NO and, at the same time, inhibits expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes.

AB - We previously reported that oroxylin A, a polyphenolic compound, was a potent inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In the present study, three oroxylin A structurally related polyphenols isolated from the Chinese herb Huang Qui, namely baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin, were examined for their effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and iNOS and COX-2 gene expressions in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that these three polyphenolic compounds inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a concentration-dependent manner without a notable cytotoxic effect on these cells. The decrease in NO production was in parallel with the inhibition by these polyphenolic compounds of LPS-induced iNOS gene expression. However, these three compounds did not directly affect iNOS enzyme activity. In addition, wogonin, but not baicalin or baicalein, inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and COX-2 gene expression without affecting COX-2 enzyme activity. Furthermore, N-nitro-L-arginine (NLA) and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment enhanced LPS-induced iNOS (but not COX-2) protein expression, which was inhibited by these three polyphenolic compounds. Wogonin, but not baicalin or baicalein, similarly inhibited PGE2 production and COX-2 protein expression in NLA/LPS or L-NAME/LPS-co-treated RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicated that co-treatment with NOS inhibitors and polyphenolic compounds such as wogonin effectively blocks acute production of NO and, at the same time, inhibits expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes.

KW - Baicalein

KW - Baicalin

KW - Cyclooxygenase-2

KW - Inducible nitric oxide synthase

KW - Lipopolysaccharide

KW - Wogonin

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U2 - 10.1016/S0006-2952(01)00594-9

DO - 10.1016/S0006-2952(01)00594-9

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