Thrombomodulin (TM) is highly expressed in endothelial cells and acts as a natural anticoagulation factor to maintain circulation homeostasis. TM is an interesting molecule with many physiological functions, including anti-inflammation, anti-thrombosis, and carcinogenesis inhibition. TM can also be detected on the spinous layer of epidermal keratinocytes. However, the role of epidermal TM is still under investigation. In this study, we investigated keratinocyte TM expression and regulation in response to sub-cytotoxic ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Oxidative stress was assessed with DCF and the results revealed that UVB irradiation significantly and dose-dependently augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HaCaT cells. In addition, low-dose UVB irradiation decreased TM mRNA and protein levels. Blocking ROS production and ERK activation prevented UVB-induced TM down-regulation. The nuclear p53 accumulation and TM promoter binding was observed within 3 h after UVB exposure. Small interfering RNA-mediated p53 knockdown disrupted the UVB-mediated TM protein down-regulation. Our study demonstrates that UVB irradiation results in ROS accumulation and ERK activation, which causes the nuclear p53 accumulation and TM promoter binding to inhibit TM expression. This study provides novel evidence demonstrating that p53 serves as a key regulator of keratinocyte TM expression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)