Differential diagnosis of renal masses is an important and difficult process. A renal mass diagnostic system (RMDS) developed by using the ILIAD expert system shell has been created for diagnostic consultations and patient simulations. Seventy-two cases of renal mass have been tested on this system and the diagnostic accuracy was compared to that of residents. The overall diagnostic accuracy (75%) for renal masses is significantly better than second-year urological residents (60%) and not worse than urological chief residents (71%). The expert system also displays the cost of the diagnostic procedures so that the user can choose the most cost-effective diagnostic process. We conclude that this powerful renal mass diagnosis system developed by using ILIAD system shell can be used as a teaching, self-training and clinical tool for urological residents.
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