Using fMRI to decode true thoughts independent of intention to conceal

Zhi Yang, Zirui Huang, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Rui Dai, G. Northoff, Peter A. Bandettini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Multi-variate pattern analysis (MVPA) applied to BOLD-fMRI has proven successful at decoding complicated fMRI signal patterns associated with a variety of cognitive processes. One cognitive process, not yet investigated, is the mental representation of "Yes/No" thoughts that precede the actual overt response to a binary "Yes/No" question. In this study, we focus on examining: (1) whether spatial patterns of the hemodynamic response carry sufficient information to allow reliable decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts; and (2) whether decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts is independent of the intention to respond honestly or dishonestly. To achieve this goal, we conducted two separate experiments. Experiment 1, collected on a 3T scanner, examined the whole brain to identify regions that carry sufficient information to permit significantly above-chance prediction of "Yes/No" thoughts at the group level. In Experiment 2, collected on a 7T scanner, we focused on the regions identified in Experiment 1 to examine the capability of achieving high decoding accuracy at the single subject level. A set of regions - namely right superior temporal gyrus, left supra-marginal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus - exhibited high decoding power. Decoding accuracy for these regions increased with trial averaging. When 18 trials were averaged, the median accuracies were 82.5%, 77.5%, and 79.5%, respectively. When trials were separated according to deceptive intentions (set via experimental cues), and classifiers were trained on honest trials, but tested on trials where subjects were asked to deceive, the median accuracies of these regions still reached 66%, 75%, and 78.5%. These results provide evidence that concealed "Yes/No" thoughts are encoded in the BOLD signal, retaining some level of independence from the subject's intentions to answer honestly or dishonestly. These findings also suggest the theoretical possibility for more efficient brain-computer interfaces where subjects only need to think their answers to communicate. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-92
Number of pages13
JournalNeuroImage
Volume99
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Brain-Computer Interfaces
Temporal Lobe
Prefrontal Cortex
Cues
Hemodynamics
Brain
Power (Psychology)

Keywords

  • Deception
  • Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
  • FMRI
  • Multivariate pattern analysis
  • Searchlight
  • adult
  • article
  • behavior
  • BOLD signal
  • brain computer interface
  • college student
  • controlled study
  • deception
  • female
  • functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • functional neuroimaging
  • human
  • human experiment
  • image analysis
  • intention to conceal
  • male
  • mental capacity
  • mental performance
  • middle frontal gyrus
  • parahippocampal gyrus
  • priority journal
  • spatial orientation
  • superior temporal gyrus
  • supramarginal gyrus
  • thinking
  • visual information
  • brain
  • brain cortex
  • forensic medicine
  • image processing
  • nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
  • photostimulation
  • physiology
  • procedures
  • psychology
  • reproducibility
  • young adult
  • Adult
  • Brain
  • Cerebral Cortex
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Intention
  • Lie Detection
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Young Adult

Cite this

Yang, Z., Huang, Z., Gonzalez-Castillo, J., Dai, R., Northoff, G., & Bandettini, P. A. (2014). Using fMRI to decode true thoughts independent of intention to conceal. NeuroImage, 99, 80-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.034

Using fMRI to decode true thoughts independent of intention to conceal. / Yang, Zhi; Huang, Zirui; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Dai, Rui; Northoff, G.; Bandettini, Peter A.

In: NeuroImage, Vol. 99, 2014, p. 80-92.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yang, Z, Huang, Z, Gonzalez-Castillo, J, Dai, R, Northoff, G & Bandettini, PA 2014, 'Using fMRI to decode true thoughts independent of intention to conceal', NeuroImage, vol. 99, pp. 80-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.034
Yang, Zhi ; Huang, Zirui ; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier ; Dai, Rui ; Northoff, G. ; Bandettini, Peter A. / Using fMRI to decode true thoughts independent of intention to conceal. In: NeuroImage. 2014 ; Vol. 99. pp. 80-92.
@article{c1dc255dc49e4e05a8ba944b0826737b,
title = "Using fMRI to decode true thoughts independent of intention to conceal",
abstract = "Multi-variate pattern analysis (MVPA) applied to BOLD-fMRI has proven successful at decoding complicated fMRI signal patterns associated with a variety of cognitive processes. One cognitive process, not yet investigated, is the mental representation of {"}Yes/No{"} thoughts that precede the actual overt response to a binary {"}Yes/No{"} question. In this study, we focus on examining: (1) whether spatial patterns of the hemodynamic response carry sufficient information to allow reliable decoding of {"}Yes/No{"} thoughts; and (2) whether decoding of {"}Yes/No{"} thoughts is independent of the intention to respond honestly or dishonestly. To achieve this goal, we conducted two separate experiments. Experiment 1, collected on a 3T scanner, examined the whole brain to identify regions that carry sufficient information to permit significantly above-chance prediction of {"}Yes/No{"} thoughts at the group level. In Experiment 2, collected on a 7T scanner, we focused on the regions identified in Experiment 1 to examine the capability of achieving high decoding accuracy at the single subject level. A set of regions - namely right superior temporal gyrus, left supra-marginal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus - exhibited high decoding power. Decoding accuracy for these regions increased with trial averaging. When 18 trials were averaged, the median accuracies were 82.5{\%}, 77.5{\%}, and 79.5{\%}, respectively. When trials were separated according to deceptive intentions (set via experimental cues), and classifiers were trained on honest trials, but tested on trials where subjects were asked to deceive, the median accuracies of these regions still reached 66{\%}, 75{\%}, and 78.5{\%}. These results provide evidence that concealed {"}Yes/No{"} thoughts are encoded in the BOLD signal, retaining some level of independence from the subject's intentions to answer honestly or dishonestly. These findings also suggest the theoretical possibility for more efficient brain-computer interfaces where subjects only need to think their answers to communicate. {\circledC} 2014 Elsevier Inc.",
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author = "Zhi Yang and Zirui Huang and Javier Gonzalez-Castillo and Rui Dai and G. Northoff and Bandettini, {Peter A.}",
note = "Cited By :4 Export Date: 11 May 2016 CODEN: NEIME Correspondence Address: Yang, Z.; Key Laboratory of Behavioral Sciences, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 Lincui Road, Beijing, 100101, China; email: yangz@psych.ac.cn Funding Details: 81270023, NSFC, National Natural Science Foundation of China References: Abe, N., The neurobiology of deception: evidence from neuroimaging and loss-of-function studies (2009) Curr. Opin. Neurol., 22, p. 594; Abe, N., Okuda, J., Suzuki, M., Sasaki, H., Matsuda, T., Mori, E., Tsukada, M., Fujii, T., Neural correlates of true memory, false memory, and deception (2008) Cereb. Cortex, 18, p. 2811; Barber, A.D., Carter, C.S., Cognitive control involved in overcoming prepotent response tendencies and switching between tasks (2005) Cereb. Cortex, 15, pp. 899-912; Buxton, R.B., Dynamic models of BOLD contrast (2012) NeuroImage, 62, pp. 953-961; Christ, S.E., Van Essen, D.C., Watson, J.M., Brubaker, L.E., McDermott, K.B., The contributions of prefrontal cortex and executive control to deception: evidence from activation likelihood estimate meta-analyses (2009) Cereb. Cortex, 19, pp. 1557-1566; Coutanche, M.N., Thompson-Schill, S.L., Schultz, R.T., Multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI data predicts clinical symptom severity (2011) NeuroImage, 57, pp. 113-123; Cox, R.W., AFNI: software for analysis and visualization of functional magnetic resonance neuroimages (1996) Comput. Biomed. Res., 29, pp. 162-173; {\cC}ukur, T., Nishimoto, S., Huth, A.G., Gallant, J.L., Attention during natural vision warps semantic representation across the human brain (2013) Nat. Neurosci., 16, pp. 763-770; Druzgal, T.J., D'Esposito, M., A neural network reflecting decisions about human faces (2001) Neuron, 32, pp. 947-955; Eickhoff, S.B., Stephan, K.E., Mohlberg, H., Grefkes, C., Fink, G.R., Amunts, K., Zilles, K., A new SPM toolbox for combining probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps and functional imaging data (2005) NeuroImage, 25, pp. 1325-1335; Etzel, J.A., Zacks, J.M., Braver, T.S., Searchlight analysis: promise, pitfalls, and potential (2013) NeuroImage, 78, pp. 261-269; Fox, P.T., The coupling controversy (2012) NeuroImage, 62, pp. 594-601; Fox, C.J., Iaria, G., Barton, J.J.S., Defining the face processing network: optimization of the functional localizer in fMRI (2009) Hum. Brain Mapp., 30, pp. 1637-1651; Gobbini, M.I., Haxby, J.V., Neural response to the visual familiarity of faces (2006) Brain Res. Bull., 71, pp. 76-82; Gobbini, M.I., Haxby, J.V., Neural systems for recognition of familiar faces (2007) Neuropsychologia, 45, pp. 32-41; Gonzalez-Castillo, J., Saad, Z.S., Handwerker, D.A., Inati, S.J., Brenowitz, N., Bandettini, P.A., Whole-brain, time-locked activation with simple tasks revealed using massive averaging and model-free analysis (2012) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 109, pp. 5487-5492; Gonzalez-Castillo, J., Duthie, K.N., Saad, Z.S., Chu, C., Bandettini, P.A., Luh, W.M., Effects of image contrast on functional MRI image registration (2013) NeuroImage, 67, pp. 163-174; Hampton, A.N., O'Doherty, J.P., Decoding the neural substrates of reward-related decision making with functional MRI (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 104, pp. 1377-1382; Haxby, J.V., Gobbini, M.I., Furey, M.L., Ishai, A., Schouten, J.L., Pietrini, P., Distributed and overlapping representations of faces and objects in ventral temporal cortex (2001) Science, 293, p. 2425; Haynes, J.D., Rees, G., Decoding mental states from brain activity in humans (2006) Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 7, pp. 523-534; Haynes, J.D., Sakai, K., Rees, G., Gilbert, S., Frith, C., Passingham, R.E., Reading hidden intentions in the human brain (2007) Curr. Biol., 17, pp. 323-328; Heeger, D.J., Ress, D., What does fMRI tell us about neuronal activity? (2002) Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 3, pp. 142-151; Heekeren, H.R., Marrett, S., Bandettini, P.A., Ungerleider, L.G., A general mechanism for perceptual decision-making in the human brain (2004) Nature, 431, pp. 859-862; Heekeren, H.R., Marrett, S., Ruff, D.A., Bandettini, P.A., Ungerleider, L.G., Involvement of human left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in perceptual decision making is independent of response modality (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 103, pp. 10023-10028; Henson, R.N., Burgess, N., Frith, C.D., Recoding, storage, rehearsal and grouping in verbal short-term memory: an fMRI study (2000) Neuropsychologia, 38, pp. 426-440; Jobard, G., Crivello, F., Tzourio-Mazoyer, N., Evaluation of the dual route theory of reading: a metanalysis of 35 neuroimaging studies (2003) NeuroImage, 20, pp. 693-712; Johnson, R., Barnhardt, J., Zhu, J., The contribution of executive processes to deceptive responding (2004) Neuropsychologia, 42, pp. 878-901; Kim, J.N., Shadlen, M.N., Neural correlates of a decision in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the macaque (1999) Nat. Neurosci., 2, pp. 176-185; Kowalczyk, A., Chapelle, O., An analysis of the anti-learning phenomenon for the class symmetric polyhedron (2005) Algorithmic learning theory, pp. 78-91. , Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, S. Jain, H. Simon, E. Tomita (Eds.); Kriegeskorte, N., Goebel, R., Bandettini, P., Information-based functional brain mapping (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 103, pp. 3863-3868; Langleben, D.D., Schroeder, L., Maldjian, J.A., Gur, R.C., McDonald, S., Ragland, J.D., O'Brien, C.P., Childress, A.R., Brain activity during simulated deception: an event-related functional magnetic resonance study (2002) NeuroImage, 15, pp. 727-732; Langleben, D.D., Loughead, J.W., Bilker, W.B., Ruparel, K., Childress, A.R., Busch, S.I., Gur, R.C., Telling truth from lie in individual subjects with fast event-related fMRI (2005) Hum. Brain Mapp., 26, pp. 262-272; Logothetis, N.K., Pauls, J., Augath, M., Trinath, T., Oeltermann, A., Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal (2001) Nature, 412, pp. 150-157; Meiran, N., Chorev, Z., Sapir, A., Component processes in task switching (2000) Cogn. Psychol., 41, pp. 211-253; Meyer, K., Kaplan, J.T., Essex, R., Webber, C., Damasio, H., Damasio, A., Predicting visual stimuli on the basis of activity in auditory cortices (2010) Nat. Neurosci., 13, pp. 667-668; Misaki, M., Kim, Y., Bandettini, P.A., Kriegeskorte, N., Comparison of multivariate classifiers and response normalizations for pattern-information fMRI (2010) NeuroImage, 53, pp. 103-118; Mitchell, T., Hutchinson, R., Niculescu, R., Pereira, F., Wang, X., Just, M., Newman, S., Learning to decode cognitive states from brain images (2004) Mach. Learn., 13, pp. 667-668; Monti, M.M., Vanhaudenhuyse, A., Coleman, M.R., Boly, M., Pickard, J.D., Tshibanda, L., Owen, A.M., Laureys, S., Willful modulation of brain activity in disorders of consciousness (2010) N. Engl. J. Med., 362, pp. 579-589; Naci, L., Cusack, R., Jia, V.Z., Owen, A.M., The Brain's silent messenger: using selective attention to decode human thought for brain-based communication (2013) J. Neurosci., 33, pp. 9385-9393; Norman, K.A., Polyn, S.M., Detre, G.J., Haxby, J.V., Beyond mind-reading: multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI data (2006) Trends Cogn. 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year = "2014",
doi = "10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.034",
language = "English",
volume = "99",
pages = "80--92",
journal = "NeuroImage",
issn = "1053-8119",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Using fMRI to decode true thoughts independent of intention to conceal

AU - Yang, Zhi

AU - Huang, Zirui

AU - Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier

AU - Dai, Rui

AU - Northoff, G.

AU - Bandettini, Peter A.

N1 - Cited By :4 Export Date: 11 May 2016 CODEN: NEIME Correspondence Address: Yang, Z.; Key Laboratory of Behavioral Sciences, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 Lincui Road, Beijing, 100101, China; email: yangz@psych.ac.cn Funding Details: 81270023, NSFC, National Natural Science Foundation of China References: Abe, N., The neurobiology of deception: evidence from neuroimaging and loss-of-function studies (2009) Curr. Opin. Neurol., 22, p. 594; Abe, N., Okuda, J., Suzuki, M., Sasaki, H., Matsuda, T., Mori, E., Tsukada, M., Fujii, T., Neural correlates of true memory, false memory, and deception (2008) Cereb. Cortex, 18, p. 2811; Barber, A.D., Carter, C.S., Cognitive control involved in overcoming prepotent response tendencies and switching between tasks (2005) Cereb. Cortex, 15, pp. 899-912; Buxton, R.B., Dynamic models of BOLD contrast (2012) NeuroImage, 62, pp. 953-961; Christ, S.E., Van Essen, D.C., Watson, J.M., Brubaker, L.E., McDermott, K.B., The contributions of prefrontal cortex and executive control to deception: evidence from activation likelihood estimate meta-analyses (2009) Cereb. Cortex, 19, pp. 1557-1566; Coutanche, M.N., Thompson-Schill, S.L., Schultz, R.T., Multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI data predicts clinical symptom severity (2011) NeuroImage, 57, pp. 113-123; Cox, R.W., AFNI: software for analysis and visualization of functional magnetic resonance neuroimages (1996) Comput. Biomed. Res., 29, pp. 162-173; Çukur, T., Nishimoto, S., Huth, A.G., Gallant, J.L., Attention during natural vision warps semantic representation across the human brain (2013) Nat. Neurosci., 16, pp. 763-770; Druzgal, T.J., D'Esposito, M., A neural network reflecting decisions about human faces (2001) Neuron, 32, pp. 947-955; Eickhoff, S.B., Stephan, K.E., Mohlberg, H., Grefkes, C., Fink, G.R., Amunts, K., Zilles, K., A new SPM toolbox for combining probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps and functional imaging data (2005) NeuroImage, 25, pp. 1325-1335; Etzel, J.A., Zacks, J.M., Braver, T.S., Searchlight analysis: promise, pitfalls, and potential (2013) NeuroImage, 78, pp. 261-269; Fox, P.T., The coupling controversy (2012) NeuroImage, 62, pp. 594-601; Fox, C.J., Iaria, G., Barton, J.J.S., Defining the face processing network: optimization of the functional localizer in fMRI (2009) Hum. Brain Mapp., 30, pp. 1637-1651; Gobbini, M.I., Haxby, J.V., Neural response to the visual familiarity of faces (2006) Brain Res. Bull., 71, pp. 76-82; Gobbini, M.I., Haxby, J.V., Neural systems for recognition of familiar faces (2007) Neuropsychologia, 45, pp. 32-41; Gonzalez-Castillo, J., Saad, Z.S., Handwerker, D.A., Inati, S.J., Brenowitz, N., Bandettini, P.A., Whole-brain, time-locked activation with simple tasks revealed using massive averaging and model-free analysis (2012) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 109, pp. 5487-5492; Gonzalez-Castillo, J., Duthie, K.N., Saad, Z.S., Chu, C., Bandettini, P.A., Luh, W.M., Effects of image contrast on functional MRI image registration (2013) NeuroImage, 67, pp. 163-174; Hampton, A.N., O'Doherty, J.P., Decoding the neural substrates of reward-related decision making with functional MRI (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 104, pp. 1377-1382; Haxby, J.V., Gobbini, M.I., Furey, M.L., Ishai, A., Schouten, J.L., Pietrini, P., Distributed and overlapping representations of faces and objects in ventral temporal cortex (2001) Science, 293, p. 2425; Haynes, J.D., Rees, G., Decoding mental states from brain activity in humans (2006) Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 7, pp. 523-534; Haynes, J.D., Sakai, K., Rees, G., Gilbert, S., Frith, C., Passingham, R.E., Reading hidden intentions in the human brain (2007) Curr. Biol., 17, pp. 323-328; Heeger, D.J., Ress, D., What does fMRI tell us about neuronal activity? (2002) Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 3, pp. 142-151; Heekeren, H.R., Marrett, S., Bandettini, P.A., Ungerleider, L.G., A general mechanism for perceptual decision-making in the human brain (2004) Nature, 431, pp. 859-862; Heekeren, H.R., Marrett, S., Ruff, D.A., Bandettini, P.A., Ungerleider, L.G., Involvement of human left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in perceptual decision making is independent of response modality (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 103, pp. 10023-10028; Henson, R.N., Burgess, N., Frith, C.D., Recoding, storage, rehearsal and grouping in verbal short-term memory: an fMRI study (2000) Neuropsychologia, 38, pp. 426-440; Jobard, G., Crivello, F., Tzourio-Mazoyer, N., Evaluation of the dual route theory of reading: a metanalysis of 35 neuroimaging studies (2003) NeuroImage, 20, pp. 693-712; Johnson, R., Barnhardt, J., Zhu, J., The contribution of executive processes to deceptive responding (2004) Neuropsychologia, 42, pp. 878-901; Kim, J.N., Shadlen, M.N., Neural correlates of a decision in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the macaque (1999) Nat. Neurosci., 2, pp. 176-185; Kowalczyk, A., Chapelle, O., An analysis of the anti-learning phenomenon for the class symmetric polyhedron (2005) Algorithmic learning theory, pp. 78-91. , Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, S. Jain, H. Simon, E. Tomita (Eds.); Kriegeskorte, N., Goebel, R., Bandettini, P., Information-based functional brain mapping (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 103, pp. 3863-3868; Langleben, D.D., Schroeder, L., Maldjian, J.A., Gur, R.C., McDonald, S., Ragland, J.D., O'Brien, C.P., Childress, A.R., Brain activity during simulated deception: an event-related functional magnetic resonance study (2002) NeuroImage, 15, pp. 727-732; Langleben, D.D., Loughead, J.W., Bilker, W.B., Ruparel, K., Childress, A.R., Busch, S.I., Gur, R.C., Telling truth from lie in individual subjects with fast event-related fMRI (2005) Hum. Brain Mapp., 26, pp. 262-272; Logothetis, N.K., Pauls, J., Augath, M., Trinath, T., Oeltermann, A., Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal (2001) Nature, 412, pp. 150-157; Meiran, N., Chorev, Z., Sapir, A., Component processes in task switching (2000) Cogn. Psychol., 41, pp. 211-253; Meyer, K., Kaplan, J.T., Essex, R., Webber, C., Damasio, H., Damasio, A., Predicting visual stimuli on the basis of activity in auditory cortices (2010) Nat. Neurosci., 13, pp. 667-668; Misaki, M., Kim, Y., Bandettini, P.A., Kriegeskorte, N., Comparison of multivariate classifiers and response normalizations for pattern-information fMRI (2010) NeuroImage, 53, pp. 103-118; Mitchell, T., Hutchinson, R., Niculescu, R., Pereira, F., Wang, X., Just, M., Newman, S., Learning to decode cognitive states from brain images (2004) Mach. Learn., 13, pp. 667-668; Monti, M.M., Vanhaudenhuyse, A., Coleman, M.R., Boly, M., Pickard, J.D., Tshibanda, L., Owen, A.M., Laureys, S., Willful modulation of brain activity in disorders of consciousness (2010) N. Engl. J. Med., 362, pp. 579-589; Naci, L., Cusack, R., Jia, V.Z., Owen, A.M., The Brain's silent messenger: using selective attention to decode human thought for brain-based communication (2013) J. Neurosci., 33, pp. 9385-9393; Norman, K.A., Polyn, S.M., Detre, G.J., Haxby, J.V., Beyond mind-reading: multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI data (2006) Trends Cogn. Sci., 10, pp. 424-430; Owen, A.M., Coleman, M.R., Boly, M., Davis, M.H., Laureys, S., Pickard, J.D., Detecting awareness in the vegetative state (2006) Science, 313, p. 1402; Paulesu, E., Frith, C.D., Frackowiak, R.S., The neural correlates of the verbal component of working memory (1993) Nature, 362, pp. 342-345; Phan, K.L., Magalhaes, A., Ziemlewicz, T.J., Fitzgerald, D.A., Green, C., Smith, W., Neural correlates of telling lies: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study at 4 Tesla (2005) Acad. Radiol., 12, pp. 164-172; Pleger, B., Ruff, C.C., Blankenburg, F., Bestmann, S., Wiech, K., Stephan, K.E., Capilla, A., Dolan, R.J., Neural coding of tactile decisions in the human prefrontal cortex (2006) J. Neurosci., 26, pp. 12596-12601; Price, C.J., The anatomy of language: a review of 100 fMRI studies published in 2009 (2010) Ann. N. Y. Acad. 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PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Multi-variate pattern analysis (MVPA) applied to BOLD-fMRI has proven successful at decoding complicated fMRI signal patterns associated with a variety of cognitive processes. One cognitive process, not yet investigated, is the mental representation of "Yes/No" thoughts that precede the actual overt response to a binary "Yes/No" question. In this study, we focus on examining: (1) whether spatial patterns of the hemodynamic response carry sufficient information to allow reliable decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts; and (2) whether decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts is independent of the intention to respond honestly or dishonestly. To achieve this goal, we conducted two separate experiments. Experiment 1, collected on a 3T scanner, examined the whole brain to identify regions that carry sufficient information to permit significantly above-chance prediction of "Yes/No" thoughts at the group level. In Experiment 2, collected on a 7T scanner, we focused on the regions identified in Experiment 1 to examine the capability of achieving high decoding accuracy at the single subject level. A set of regions - namely right superior temporal gyrus, left supra-marginal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus - exhibited high decoding power. Decoding accuracy for these regions increased with trial averaging. When 18 trials were averaged, the median accuracies were 82.5%, 77.5%, and 79.5%, respectively. When trials were separated according to deceptive intentions (set via experimental cues), and classifiers were trained on honest trials, but tested on trials where subjects were asked to deceive, the median accuracies of these regions still reached 66%, 75%, and 78.5%. These results provide evidence that concealed "Yes/No" thoughts are encoded in the BOLD signal, retaining some level of independence from the subject's intentions to answer honestly or dishonestly. These findings also suggest the theoretical possibility for more efficient brain-computer interfaces where subjects only need to think their answers to communicate. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

AB - Multi-variate pattern analysis (MVPA) applied to BOLD-fMRI has proven successful at decoding complicated fMRI signal patterns associated with a variety of cognitive processes. One cognitive process, not yet investigated, is the mental representation of "Yes/No" thoughts that precede the actual overt response to a binary "Yes/No" question. In this study, we focus on examining: (1) whether spatial patterns of the hemodynamic response carry sufficient information to allow reliable decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts; and (2) whether decoding of "Yes/No" thoughts is independent of the intention to respond honestly or dishonestly. To achieve this goal, we conducted two separate experiments. Experiment 1, collected on a 3T scanner, examined the whole brain to identify regions that carry sufficient information to permit significantly above-chance prediction of "Yes/No" thoughts at the group level. In Experiment 2, collected on a 7T scanner, we focused on the regions identified in Experiment 1 to examine the capability of achieving high decoding accuracy at the single subject level. A set of regions - namely right superior temporal gyrus, left supra-marginal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus - exhibited high decoding power. Decoding accuracy for these regions increased with trial averaging. When 18 trials were averaged, the median accuracies were 82.5%, 77.5%, and 79.5%, respectively. When trials were separated according to deceptive intentions (set via experimental cues), and classifiers were trained on honest trials, but tested on trials where subjects were asked to deceive, the median accuracies of these regions still reached 66%, 75%, and 78.5%. These results provide evidence that concealed "Yes/No" thoughts are encoded in the BOLD signal, retaining some level of independence from the subject's intentions to answer honestly or dishonestly. These findings also suggest the theoretical possibility for more efficient brain-computer interfaces where subjects only need to think their answers to communicate. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

KW - Deception

KW - Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

KW - FMRI

KW - Multivariate pattern analysis

KW - Searchlight

KW - adult

KW - article

KW - behavior

KW - BOLD signal

KW - brain computer interface

KW - college student

KW - controlled study

KW - deception

KW - female

KW - functional magnetic resonance imaging

KW - functional neuroimaging

KW - human

KW - human experiment

KW - image analysis

KW - intention to conceal

KW - male

KW - mental capacity

KW - mental performance

KW - middle frontal gyrus

KW - parahippocampal gyrus

KW - priority journal

KW - spatial orientation

KW - superior temporal gyrus

KW - supramarginal gyrus

KW - thinking

KW - visual information

KW - brain

KW - brain cortex

KW - forensic medicine

KW - image processing

KW - nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

KW - photostimulation

KW - physiology

KW - procedures

KW - psychology

KW - reproducibility

KW - young adult

KW - Adult

KW - Brain

KW - Cerebral Cortex

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - Image Processing, Computer-Assisted

KW - Intention

KW - Lie Detection

KW - Magnetic Resonance Imaging

KW - Male

KW - Photic Stimulation

KW - Reproducibility of Results

KW - Young Adult

U2 - 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.034

DO - 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.034

M3 - Article

VL - 99

SP - 80

EP - 92

JO - NeuroImage

JF - NeuroImage

SN - 1053-8119

ER -