OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether contrast medium volume and method of administration and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate influence the efficacy of prophylactic hydration for prevention of acute kidney injury after contrast administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS. An online search of PubMed conducted on August 25, 2017, produced a total of 697 studies. After the reports were reviewed, nine were included in this study. The extracted data on all patients in these studies were separated into a group that received prophylactic hydration and a group that did not. The following three parameters were used for subgroup analysis: contrast medium volume, contrast administration method, and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate. The t test was performed, and study-level odds ratios with 95% CIs and p values were calculated. Tests of heterogeneity were conducted. RESULTS. When the volume of contrast agent administered exceeded 100 mL, hydration was beneficial in the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (odds ratio, 0.546). If the volume was less than 100 mL, hydration had no efficacy in preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (odds ratio, 0.917). Administration route and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate exerted no effect on the efficacy of prophylactic hydration. CONCLUSION. For patients who receive less than 100 mL of contrast medium, the prevalent practice for contrast-enhanced CT studies, prophylactic hydration may not be necessary, regardless of the estimated glomerular filtration rate or route of contrast administration. For patients undergoing procedures requiring administration of large volumes of contrast medium, however, hydration is recommended to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury.